Description: Malaysian-born, Taiwanese auteur Tsai Ming-Liang's films have always required a lot of work. He's a rigorous practitioner of the extreme long-take aesthetic, and audiences have been willing to stick with such demanding masterpieces as "What Time Is It Over There?" "The River" and "Vive l'amour" because despite the constant battle to overcome ennui, Tsai always pays off, either in humor, fresh insight into the human condition or a novel, strikingly profound combination of the visual and aural.
"Face" is about little more than itself, its director and Francois Truffaut -- in that order. The "plot line" that can be pieced together by reading the press kit and slogging through the entire film (and using a lot of imagination) is that a Chinese director (Lee Kang-Sheng) has come to France to make a film about Salome and wants Truffaut regular Jean Pierre Leaud to play Herod. Fanny Ardant, another Truffaut regular at the other end of his short life, works on the film as a kind of production assistant.
Tsai also appears to believe that he has become a famous-enough auteur (this is his 10th film) to openly quote himself. Thus, those familiar with "Hole" will find the flooded waters and the sudden breaking into unmotivated song from that film in the new one as well. (Now the songs are in Chinese and Spanish, lip-synched by Laetitia Costa.) The fish tank from "What Time Is It Over There?" also re-appears as well as the Parisian fountain that provides its memorable ending, but this time quizzically with a deer that has been a nonrunning motif.
Images succeed one another with little or no narrative connection, yet many of them are stunning in their own right. For example, at one point the director and actor Leaud are in the forest watching the same forest depicted on television, and Leaud hands his pet bird to the director, who cleverly pretends to make it fly from televised tree to tree. Something deep about reality and representation is probably being said here, but it is unclear just what. In any case, the gesture presumably abets the mirrors that have been placed earlier throughout the snow-covered woods. It also must be said that with the gorgeous model Costa playing Salome, the dance of the seven veils is a huge treat. Other motifs just seem to fall flat, like the one in which a character (Costa?) obsessively covers windows and mirrors with black tape. It goes without saying that every application of the tape is shown at full length. Shots rarely show what they normally would, and everything is seen as through a mirror -- or at least through a reflecting window -- darkly. Characters seen on screen are rarely those heard on the soundtrack, who remain off-camera.
Completely gratuitous cameos by the likes of Jeanne Moreau, Nathalie Baye and Mathieu Almaric prove little more than embarrassing.
As one would expect in a movie called "Face," faces abound, but they rarely add up to anything beyond their sheer there-ness. This kind of lengthy self-indulgence by an heretofore brilliant director is almost enough to make you want the producers to rise up against the auteurs and take over again.
(review by Peter Brunette)
Suzanne is a well to do married woman and mother in the south of France. Her idle bourgeois lifestyle gets her down and she decides to go back to work as a physiotherapist. Her husband agrees to fix up a consulting room for her in their backyard. When Suzanne and the man hired to do the building meet, the mutual attraction is sudden and violent. Suzanne decides to give up everything and live this all engulfing passion to the fullest......................dplanet
Introduction To The End Of An argument(1990)
Although this film has no plot or story, it makes a very strong case against western discrimination and stereotyping of Arabs... A long series of clips from mainly hollywood movies that contained Anti Arab comments or portrayals cut into a flowing collage. The best thing about it is that it needs no comment, no text, no words. It makes no judgment, makes no comment but rather allows the audience to watch and judge for themselves. An almost impossible feat in any other medium.
Jayce Salloum, a Lebanese/Canadian artist, and Elia Suleiman, a Palestinian filmmaker living in New York, have taken on our accumulated (mis)impressions of the Palestinian Intifada by tracing their genesis in film and television.This highly kinetic tableaux of uprooted sights and sounds works most earnestly to expose the racial biases concealed in familiar images. Relying on valuable snippets from feature films such as EXODOUS, LAWRENCE OF ARABIA, BLACK SUNDAY, LITTLE DRUMMER GIRL, and network news shows, the filmmakers have constructed an oddly wry narrative, mimicking the history of Mid East politics.
This film is in the main a mashup of clips from various American news programs and Middle Eastern themed Hollywood films, intermixed with camera footage from Palestine and excerpts from interviews, including an interview with Dr Haider Abdel Shafi............ by ozkardozi in srlmovies
How Much Does The Trojan Horse Weigh?(2008)
Dir: Juliusz Machulski
This movie is very good, but quite unlike previous Machulski's works. Machulski is a master of comedy, but this movie is not a comedy; it's rather a drama with fantasy/dream elements.
I'm afraid this movie will share the fate of Mike Judge's "Office Space" and Ślesicki's "Show". Both movies are great, but failed at the box office, because were unlike their directors previous works, and thus were not what people expected.
Anyway, "Ile waży koń trojański?" is a great movie. It's based on a "what-if" concept. A woman wishes to undo some mistakes of her youth, and she is given a chance to do it. She accidentally finds herself back in 1987, 27 years old, in communist Poland, but with knowledge of her future (which she wants to change).
Grzegorz Borowiak from PolandIMDB
This is a very interesting movie. It shows us some ancient traditions from Chile and a social portraits where the problems (poverty, violence, prostitution) are still the same. Being a social film, it is not a sad one. Largo Viaje is full of tenderness and the humour is always present between all the drama. I recommend this movie for those who wants to know about the way the Chileans are.
Fun Bar Karoake(1997)
Pu, a young girl, has been dreaming that her mother, who had died some years before, is building a house. A fortune teller advises her that, should she continue to have this dream, her father will die when the house is completed. Her father, a playboy, is a karaoke regular. He eventually becomes involved with Yok who has connections with the Chinese Mafia. Noi, son of an American soldier who dreams of saving money, is learning English and wants to leave for America. He is in love with Pu, but too shy to reveal his love for her. Pu cannot stop dreaming about the house. Her father's relationship with Yok brings him nothing but bad luck... .. ADC
The Wind Journeys(2009)
Synopsis: Ignacio Carrillo travelled all his life throughout the villages and regions of northern Colombia, carrying music and traditional songs on his accordion, a legendary instrument that is said to be cursed, because it once belonged to the devil. As he became older, he got married and settled with his wife in a small town, leaving his nomadic life behind. When she suddenly dies, he decides to make one last journey to the Northern edge of the country, to return the accordion to the man who gave it to him, his teacher and mentor, so he will never play it again. On the way, he is joined by Fermín, a teenager who dreams of becoming a “juglar” like Ignacio, and to travel all around playing the accordion like he did....
Tired of his loneliness, Ignacio accepts to be accompanied, and together they start the journey from Majagual, Sucre, to Taroa, beyond the Guajira desert, finding on the way the enormous diversity of the Caribbean culture and surviving all kinds of adventures. Ignacio will try to convince Fermín to take a different path in his life, having learned that his only led to solitude and sadness, but he will have to face the fact that destiny has different plans for him and his pupil.............................................................jaycam fmddl
Boats Out of Watermelon Rind(2004)
he days pass slowly at the watermelon stand, until the day a widow shows up with a tin pail asking Recep to save any broken watermelon rinds for her for her cows. She tells him if he will bring the full pail to her at the end of the day, she will give him bread with cream.
The woman, "Auntie" Nezihe, eventually drags him to her house for tea every day; Recep agrees reluctantly at first, unti he meets her beautiful daughters. The younger daughter is perhaps a year or two younger than him, and immediately develops a charming adolescent crush on the handsome rural boy, but it is to the older daughter, Nihal (Boncuk Yilmaz), that Recep is drawn like a moth to flame. Her icy disdain for him and his position in life do nothing to quench his ardor; the more she refuses to speak to or even look at her, the more he desires and dreams about her.
Auntie Nezihe is both pushy and annoying, fawning over Recep, admiring his curly locks, and demanding that he be her "son". The relationship between her and Recep clearly illulminates key differences between adolescent boys raised in rural Turkey and adolescent boys raised in Western culture; an American youth would likely not even deign to talk to such a pushy and annoying woman, but Recep, raised within a culture that has taught him rigidly to respect and obey his elders, must helplessly and politely accept her pushiness, even when she crosses boundaries that make him clearly uncomfortable.
Recep and Mahmet dream of movies and filmmaking and getting out of their rural village. They are attemping to build their own movie projector out of a wooden box and nails, using discarded strips of broken film from a movie theater, but can't figure out how to "make the man move". Recep's mother disapproves of their efforts, and whenever she finds their stash of film she burns it. Recep has long talks with his (deceased) grandfather about both his struggles to make his projector work and his love for Auntie Nezihe's daughter.
Reviews: In this autobiographical debut feature, Ahmet Ulucay captures the infinite joys of childhood and the magical hold of cinema on two young boys living in Tepecik, a small Anatolian village, where Ulucay still lives. Working with a watermelon vendor and a barber by day, and trying to build a film projector by night, Recep and Mehmet dream of changing their lives by becoming famous film directors. The village idiot, Deli Omer, is the sole witness to their exuberant nocturnal labors and simple longings. But things begin to change when Recep falls for Nihal. Life, echoing the complicated plot twists of his beloved films, turns out to be quite complicated, as Recep's feelings are not reciprocated by Nihal, but by her younger sister.
Self-taught director Ahmet Ulucay persisted for more than a decade to fulfill his dream of making an autobiographical film about his youth in Turkey. The result of his perseverance and ingenuity is the absolutely charming Boats out of Watermelon Rinds, a return to the romance, vigor and sweet dreams of adolescence... Shot entirely on digital video and transferred to 35mm, Boats out of Watermelon Rinds is lushly painted with inspired plays of color and a keen eye for landscape; it conjures up a time and place far away, but somehow completely familiar. This is an infatuating, prodigious debut and a stirring tribute to a lifelong love of the cinema." -- Dimitri Eipides, Toronto International Film Festival
The undoubted discovery of 2004's Istanbul Film Festival, Boats out of Watermelon Rinds is an autobiographical charmer by first-time helmer Ulucay, evoking early teen dreams about girls and movies. Although the combo of first love and movie obsession is hardly new, writer-director Ulucay brings an engaging flavor to the material, aided by an acute sense of period and setting, plus tip-top performances by the whole cast-- Variety.................................................Joebmallon ADC
Wanderers of the Desert(1986)
Description: "Les Baliseurs du désert" aka "Wanderers of the Desert" is a simply told story of a teacher who is sent to a desert village (or what is left of it) to take over a school and teach the young people there. He arrives to find the citizens walking around in a dreamlike state. When the teacher asks the local Sheik, he is informed that the village has a curse upon it, where the locals walk off, with the promise of a buried treasure, only to find themselves the unfortunates that are referred to as the wanderers of the desert, who will wander until the end of time in the desert.
Add some elements of spirituality and you have yourself a beautifully told tale of casting off the material/superficial world & connecting with the spiritual one. Despite the overall lack of colour, it still manages to capture glints of persian rugs, shawls, prayer mats, etc. The movie also has something of the wit, cruelty and ambiguity of the Arabian Nights. Legendary figures materialize out of wells and the desert itself, groups of children hurry through a labyrinth of underground corridors, the teacher is whisked away to a mysterious rendezvous and never returns.
Nothing is really explained; Khemir merely shows how legend, tradition and fate hang heavily over this community and he does so with a richly expressive visual style aided by superb use of colour. Especially notable is the way the protagonists are always placed against sun-scorched landscapes in which nothing is quite what it seems, like the marvelous moment when everyone gathers around a ship that has mysteriously washed up in the desert sand. It also manages to add some very Fellini like images from time to time (the boat that turns up outside the village gate).
The ever-present desert is breathtakingly beautiful, and enhances the atmosphere of mystery that surrounds this saga from beginning till the end. It is hard to single out something in this beautiful film, but if something may be highlighted, it must be the costume department. What eye for detail, what a profound feeling for richness and diversity, without ever going over the top. But then again, this could be said about all the aspects of this rich and glorious film.
Nacer Khemir, a traveling poet, cineast and teller of fables, has created a truly grand film which makes one hunger after the other two installments of his Desert Trilogy - "Le Collier Perdu de la Colombe" ("The Dove’s Lost Necklace", 1991) and "Bab'Aziz" ("The Prince That Contemplated His Soul", 2005). In a well balanced pace Khemir shows us past & present, myths & everyday life & legends, life & death and much beyond that. This epic in a forgotten, isolated village is not into finding answers, but the questions which are raised are truly wonderful.
The Doves Lost Necklace(1991)
Description: A lush and beautiful movie, indeed as if experiencing an unknown chapter of the Arabian Nights. "Le Collier perdu de la colombe" aka "The Dove’s Lost Necklace" or "The Lost Collar of the Dove" is a visually ravishing folktale reminiscent of The Thousand and One Nights. The story revolves around Hassan, who is studying Arabic calligraphy from a grand master. Coming across a fragment of manuscript, Hassan goes in search of the missing pieces, believing that once he finds them, he will learn the secrets of love. With the help of Zin, a lovers' go-between, he meets the beautiful Aziz, Princess of Samarkand. After encountering wars, a battle between false prophets and an ancient curse, he learns that an entire lifetime would not suffice for him to learn the many dimensions of love.
The films of writer, poet and filmmaker Nacer Khemir all stand on their own, but his personal signature is easily traceable in this movie. It's is smooth and polished as a fairy tale, and this is a pity when judged against it's predecessor "Les Baliseurs du Désert" ("Wanderers of the Desert", 1986) - the first part of Khemir's Desert Trilogy. Where there was magic in the realism of "Wanderers...", there is some mundane stuff in the magic of "The Dove...". The movie is more colourful and seems easier to follow, the arabic spoken language is classical as opposed to the strong Tunisian accent of "Wanderers...". Non-arabs might find the love sick student a bit over the top but it makes lots of sense in a middle eastern context and the over-emphasis on love, especially divine love was something prevalent in islamic society at those times.
Description: "Bab'Aziz" aka "The Prince Who Contemplated His Soul" aka "Dance of the Wind" is a visual poem of incomparable beauty. This visually stunning film, filmed in the enchanting and ever-shifting sandscapes of Tunisia and Iran, presents a multi-leveled glimpse of Sufism, the mystical expression of Islam. Filled with breathtaking images and wonderful music, Nacir Khemir has created a fairytale-like story of longing and belonging.
This masterpiece begins with the story of a blind dervish named Bab’Aziz and his spirited granddaughter, Ishtar. Together they wander the desert in search of a great reunion of dervishes that takes place just once every thirty years. With faith as their only guide, the two journey for days through the expansive, barren landscape. To keep Ishtar entertained, Bab’Aziz relays the ancient tale of a prince who relinquished his realm in order to remain next to a small pool in the desert, staring into its depths while contemplating his soul. As the tale of the prince unfolds, the two encounter other travelers with stories of their own - including Osman, who longs for the beautiful woman he met at the bottom of a well, and Zaid, who searches for the ravishing young woman who fled from him after being seduced by his songs.
"Bab'Aziz" is his last film in the Desert Trilogy of Tunisian director Nacer Khemir, his past cinematic achievements include the award-winning features "Les Baliseurs du Désert" ("Wanderers of the Desert", 1986) and "Le Collier Perdu de la Colombe" ("The Dove’s Lost Necklace
A BRAND NEW LIFE(2009)
Young Jinhee is taken by her father to an orphanage near Seoul. He leaves her there never to return, and she struggles to come to grips with her fate. Jinhee desperately believes her father will come back for her and take her on a trip. The film is based on the experiences of the director, an ethnic Korean who was adopted by a French couple in the 1970s.
BURMA VJ :Reporting From A Closed Country(2008)
Armed with pocket-sized video cameras, a tenacious band of Burmese reporters face down death to expose the repressive regime controlling their country. In 2007, after decades of self-imposed silence, Burma became headline news across the globe when peaceful Buddhist monks led a massive rebellion. More than 100,000 people took to the streets protesting a cruel dictatorship that has held the country hostage for more than 40 years. Foreign news crews were banned, the Internet was shut down, and Burma was closed to the outside world. So how did we witness these events? Enter the Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB), aka the Burma VJs.
Compiled from the shaky handheld footage of the DVB, acclaimed filmmaker Anders Ostergaard’s Burma VJ pulls us into the heat of the moment as the VJs themselves become the target of the Burmese government. Their tactical leader, code-named Joshua, oversees operations from a safe hiding place in Thailand. Via clandestine phone calls, Joshua dispenses his posse of video warriors, who covertly film the abuses in their country, then smuggle their footage across the border into Thailand. Joshua ships the footage to Norway, where it is broadcast back to Burma and the world via satellite . Burma VJ plays like a thriller, all the more scary because it is true.
This film blindfolded followed the life of a real prophet. Today, when the earth is stunned by terrorism, it’s him and his philosophy of seeing and taking life simply, peacefully is ideal where no discrimination exists. Naturally this film disseminates the concept global brotherhood to 'give peace a chance'. So pals, lets take life simply; - God is nowhere but now here. Let's recall love once again as remedial approach.
Last but not the least this film will provide you some legendary folk songs with awesome lyrical strength.
The Village Of Widows(1989)
Years ago, a fishing village along the coast of China, because the men in a sea fishing were all swept away and become a strong typhoon girls to be married. Widows their children Lache Tai, give them a family. But here's Wedding Customs regulations: Only clear, Mid-Autumn Festival and New Year's Eve, his wife, before being reunited to her husband; married less than three years, sleeping with men and women are not allowed; marriage three years, pregnant women are not allowed; marriage three years later, his wife, if not to have children, they are subject to ridicule. Who violated the teachings of our forefathers, you have to jump into the sea himself. In 1949, the village of widows in a family of three sisters: Miss Ting, multi-mei, A to, their parents having died, and Dependence. Ting married sister and good things ten years, has not been pregnant. Finally heading for the reunion day, sympathetic encounter menstrual period, which made the original high Wanfu very angry mood. Multi-married sister and four virtues have not yet three years, each reunion, the two can sit across screens, look no even see each other. Ah to married only a year and Ron Artest, the two had extreme pressure passion, working hard and making youth. Ms Ting is a medical treatment, more than sister to the family cattle led to the bazaar to sell and buy cattle is four virtues, but the two did not know each other. When more than four virtues are for the wife, sister to know when buying beef, Chi Wang afterlife can find such a good man.
Zinos, a German of Greek descent, owns the Soul Kitchen, a restaurant providing simple food, in Hamburg. The business runs of sorts. Zinos girlfriend Nadine, who works as a journalist leaving for Shanghai and his incarcerated brother Illias needs a job to extend his special leave from prison. Also Zinos suffers from a slipped disc and can not afford treatment because he has no medical insurance. He hires the fiery and knife-throwing chef Shayn who brings dramatic changes to the restaurant. Firstly the regular guest, who are accustomed to Schnitzel and Currywurst, are shocked by the new Haute cuisine, but by and by they lean to cherish the good food. Thanks to the Band of waiter Lutz and a DJ mixing console, which was stolen by Illias, the Soul Kitchen becomes a popular music local. But soon new stress is caused by property shark Neumann who tries to buy the restaurant for a new property development. Meanwhile Zinos to craves for Nadine. In order to save his relationship Zinos makes Illias the managing director of the Soul Kitchen and wants to travel to Shangai. But at the airport he meets Nadine, who's now in love with a Chinese man. In Zinos absence Illias loses the Soul Kitchen trough Poker to Neumann. During the attempt to steal the deed of ownership from Neumann, Illias is arrested by the police. Zinos is below the floor, especially by his very impaired spinal disc herniation. But with help from physiotherapist Anna and alternative chiropractor Kemal, he is healed. Fortunately Neumann is arrested by the fiscal authorities and becomes Illias new fellow inmate in prison. The Soul Kitchen gets auctioned off and with financial help from Nadine, Zinos buys his local back. In the end of the movie Zions has a relationship with Anna and Illias (although still in prison) with the waitress Lucia.
Genre.: Comedy / Drama
Country: IranDirector: Tahmineh Milani
Red-hot movie star and notorious ladies' man Kourosh (Shahab Hosseini) exploits his fame for every pleasure it can bring him, never mind the consequences. That is, until one day a teenage girl (Fataneh Malekmohamadi) shows up and announces that she's his daughter. Now, as the girl cramps his bachelor lifestyle, Kourosh slowly discovers the unique joys of being a responsible adult. This drama from Iranian director Tahmineh Milani co-stars Nasrin Moghanloo.
Aviya's Summer / Ha-Kayitz Shel Aviya (1988)
Director.........: Eli Cohen
A mother and her daughter attempt to go about their daily lives in the early 1950s after surviving the Holocaust. Ten-year-old Aviya (Kaipo Cohen) and her mother, Henya (Almagor), live in a small Israeli village. Henya continually struggles to escape her nightmares about her past, while Aviya is determined to find her father and wonders if each passing face could be the man she's looking for.
Palestinian youth write and perform hip hop in the '48 (what they call Israel) and the occupied territories (Gaza and the West Bank). We meet DAM, a '48 group, led by Tamer Nafar; three young women who perform to rousing applause but objection from some family members and neighbors; and PR, an emerging trio from Gaza. They see rap as a way to channel anger. The camera observes them composing and performing, going to gigs, and walking the streets of Tel Aviv and Gaza. Israel's military presence is extensive: for instance, will PR be allowed to travel from Gaza to a concert in Ramallah, even with proper papers? Cell phones and the Internet link friends across walls, checkpoints, and barbed wire
Tempo de Paz (Peace time)(2009)
Rio de Janeiro, April 18, 1945. In Brazil, the Getúlio Vargas government releases political prisoners while receiving thousands of European immigrants. In this context arises the clash between the head of Customs and Immigration in Rio de Janeiro and a former Polish actor, supposed follower of Hitler.
Dom zly (2009) aka The Dark House
Language: polish - english hardsubs
Director: Wojciech Smarzowski
Description: The story takes place in two parallel time planes. The first plot follows the events of one autumn night in 1978. Edward Srodon, a zootechnician, makes an accidental stopover in a farmhouse of Dziabas family in the remote area of Bieszczady Mountains. He stays for the night. The initial distrust between the guest and his hosts is quickly dispelled with moonshine and turns into a camaraderie, intimacy and even friendship. A plan of making a joint business arises, as well as passion and lust, which lead to a surprising and tragic consequences... Second plot is set on a winter day, during the Martial Law in Poland. An investigating team of Milicja Obywatelska (People's Militia) is visiting the crime scene. Lieutenant Mroz is trying to solve the multiple murder case from four years ago. The tool he has to his disposal is the reconstruction of events with help of the chief suspect, Srodon
Runtime: 87 min
Director: Aage Rais-Nordentoft
Description: Once again, Denmark wants to create a picture of the real life.
This movie is about a beautiful teenager called Molly (Lea Baastrup Rønne). She is recording her entire life to video tapes. Her boyfriend is sako (Olaf Højgaard). Molly reports to the police that she have been raped, and the boyfriend was apart of it.
What I really liked is, the writer wanted to create a realistic picture of how dangerous the life can be as teenager. that's why there is a site called mollycam, and she is in facebook and arto(largest site for youngest, chatting together) He really wanted the person who saw it to believe it was real. of cause to make it more realistic you will almost see everything though her camera. Her boyfriend, when she got abused etc. It feels like you are always beside her. He also wanted to show us, that teenagers is wearing less cloth to look more attractive. It can cause problems to the teenagers life in the future.
Les herbes folles (2009) aka Wild Grass
Country:franceDescription: A wallet lost and found opens the door to romantic adventure for Georges and Marguerite. After examining the ID papers of its owner, it is not a simple matter for Georges to turn the red wallet he found in to the police. Nor is it that Marguerite can recuperate her wallet without being piqued with curiosity about whom it was who found it. As they navigate the social protocols of giving and acknowledging thanks, turbulence enters their otherwise quotidian lives.
dir;René Villarrealcountry: Mexico
Framed by the high mountain chains that surround the city of Monterrey (Mexico), three youngsters live passions and dilemmas, roaming between the steep slums and the luxury districts, crowned by the irresistible rhythm of the "colombia regiomontana".
under the domim tree(1994)
Aviya is the only Israeli-born girl among her schoolmates (the rest are Holocaust survivors from various European countries) in a boarding school in Israel, circa 1953. The public debate on the issue of accepting German reparations for Nazi atrocities awakens the dormant individual memories of each of the youths, and creates sharp conflicts which influence their coming-of-age, with its fears, dreams, problems of identity, and first love. Aviya determined to find the tomb of her father, who died before she was born, while her mother in the mental hospital refuses to recall her painful past. Written by L.H. Wong
Today And The Other Days (2009)
Director.........: Choi Wee-an
The film shows the event in the outskirts of a town where the government’s re-development plan is being carried out. An unmarried daughter lives with her father, who suffers from dementia, and plays hwa-tu with him every night. The woman’s desire to break away from this stifling life and the reality that does not permit escape are symbolized by the diverse disorders appearing in the film. (from: www.hancinema.com)
dir:Jan Jakub Kolski
country ; PolandWitold narrates a story. In Warsaw, in 1943, he meets the cultivated Fryderyk at a salon and they become friends...